高中英语复习 状语从句(完整版).ppt

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状语从句,状语时用来修饰词,词,词或的一种句子成分。它可以表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较、方式等。当充当状语的部分是一个句子时,也就是状语从句。分类如下,动,形容,副,句子,什么是状语,状语从句,,1.时间状语从句,2.地点状语从句,3.原因状语从句,4.条件状语从句,5.让步状语从句,6.目的状语从句,7.结果状语从句,8.方式状语从句,9.比较状语从句,1.时间状语从句,引导词可分为两部分.,aswhilewhenwheneverbeforeafteruntiltillsinceassoonas,everytimenexttimethefirst/timethemomenttheminute/instantlyimmediatelydirectly一就,as引导的时间状语从句,可以表达“正当”,“一边一边”,“随着”等意思。,1.表示某事一发生,另一事立即发生。Asthesunrose,thefogdisappeared.,2.表示在某事发生的过程中,另一事发生。Justashewasspeakingtherewasaloudexplosion.,3.表示两个动作同时发生。Helensangasongasshewashed.,4.表示“随着..”.常指一个行为是另一个行为的结果,或一种状态随另一种状态变化。句中的动词多表示状态的发展变化。Asshegrewolder,shebecamemorebeautiful.,1.as,while,when的区别,while持续性动词/进行时,*一般或现在情况*将来情况-V一般现在时或现在进行时*过去情况,e.g.IlikelisteningtomusicwhileIamdoingmyhomework.,e.g.I’mgoingtothepostoffice.--Whileyouarethere,canyougetsomestampse,e.g.IhurtmyshouldwhileIwasdoinggym.,WhileIwaswalkingdownthestreet,Icameacrossanoldfriend.while_______WhileIreallydon’tlikeart,Ifindhisworkimpressive.while_________Whilethereislifethereishope.while__________Helikespopmusic,whileIamfondoffolkmusic.,when,although,,aslongas,While在句中的不同含义,when持续性/非持续性动词都可,*当时*正在忽然,e.g.WhenIfirstsawher,Ifellinlovewithher.---Whendidyougethome---Itwaseighto’clockwhenIgothome.,Theywerewalkingdownthestreetwhentheysawanaccident.2Iwasabouttogoswimmingwhenourguidestoppedme.,*尽管/虽然/鉴于/如果/届时/,e.g.Hewalkswhenhemighttakeataxi.TheQueenwillvisitthetowninMay,whenshewillopenthenewhospital.HowcanyouhopeercyyourselfwhenyoushownoneHowcouldIliveinLosAngeleswhenallmyfavoritepeoplelivehere,虽然,届时,如果,鉴于,既然,when还有一些较为灵活的翻译,before引导的时间状语从句,◆before引导的时间状语从句,常译为“在之前”,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之前。,Wecleantheclassroombeforeweleaveschooleveryday.,Itwillnotbelongbeforeyouregretforwhatyou’vedone.,after引导的时间状语从句,◆after引导的时间状语从句,常译为“在之后”,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之后。,Afteryouuseplasticbags,youmustn’tthrowthemabout.,since引导的时间状语从句,◆since引导的时间状语从句,常译为“自从”,主句常用现在完成时,从句常用一般过去时。,例句翻译我们自从分手以后一直没见过面。,Wehaven’tseeneachothersinceweparted.,常用句型Ithasbeenis时间段since从句“自从有多长时间了”,例句翻译自从她大学毕业已经有六年时间了。,Ithasbeenissixyearssinceshegraduatedfromtheuniversity.,until/till引导的时间状语从句,◆until/till引导的时间状语从句,常译为“直到时”,表示主句动作发生在从句之前。,◆当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时,主句常用肯定形式。,例句我会待在这里,直到你回来。,I’llstayhereuntilyoucomeback.,◆当主句谓语动词是非延续性动词时,主句常用否定形式。notuntil“直到才”,这时until可用before替换。,Hedidn’tgotobeduntilhefinishedhishomework.,例句他直到做完作业才睡觉。,assoonas引导的时间状语从句,◆assoonas引导的时间状语从句,译为“一就”,表示从句动作一发生,主句的动作马上就发生。,例句他一回来我就告诉他这件事。,Iwilltellhimaboutitassoonashecomesback.,◆相当于assoonas用法的词或短语还有themoment,theminute等.,2.I’llgivehimyourmessagetheminutehearrives.,1.ThemomentIhaddoneit,IknewIhadmadeamistake.,名词短语引导的时间状语从句,◆thetime,thehour,theday,bythetime,eachtime,everytime,nexttime,anytime等也可以引导时间状语从句。,IthoughtherniceandhonestthefirsttimeIsawher.,Bythetimeyouarrived,thelecturehadalreadyended.,Bythetimehecomes,wewillalreadyhaveleft.,其他连词引导的时间状语从句,◆nosoonerthan,hardly/scarcely/barelywhen引导时间状语从句,从句用一般过去时,主句用过去完成时。当nosooner,hardly/scarcely/barely位于句首时,主句要用部分倒装。,Ihadnosoonerbeguntotalkthanherangoff.NosoonerhadIbeguntotalkthanherangoff.我还未来得及讲话,他就挂断了电话。,1.IwassofamiliarwithhimthatIrecognizedhisvoice______Ipickedupthephone.A.whileB.afterC.incaseD.theminute2.Howlongdoyouthinkitwilltake_______ourproductbecomespopularwiththeconsumersA.whenB.untilC.beforeD.since3.______thedaywenton,theweathergotworse.A.WithB.sinceC.AsD.While4.Hewashalfwaythroughhismeal____afamiliarvoicecametohisears.A.whyB.whereC.whenD.while,地点状语从句用连接副词where或wherever在任何地方引导。,e.g.a.Juststaywhereyouare.b.Wherethereisawill,thereisaway.c.Youcansitwhereveryoulike.d.Whereveryougo,I’llberightherewaitingforyou.,Whenhereadsabook,hishabitistomakeamark___themeaningisuncleartohim.A.thereB.whereverC.theplaceD.inwhich,2.地点状语从句,原因状语从句表示主句中的某一动作或状态所发生的原因。引导这种从句常用的连接词是because,as,since,nowthat,for,和consideringthat,seeingthat这七个连词都用于表示表示原因,但在语气上一个比一个弱。,e.g.Hedidn’tcometoschoolbecausehewasill.,c.f.Hemightbeill,forhedidn’tcometoschool.,表示“直接”原因。,表示“间接的推断”原因.不可出现在句首。,3.原因状语从句,because,since,as,for的区别,because直接原因,非推断.语气最强.回答why的问题。since–通常放句首.译为“既然”as–不谈自明的原因,语气最弱。for–放句中,引导后半句表原因,或补充推断的理由。,1.Idancedinfrontofthepeople_________Ilikedit.2.You’dbetterwearstrongshoes_____we’lldoalotofwalking.3.____hewasnotwell,Idecidedtogowithouthim.4.______everybodyknowaboutit,Idon’twanttotalkanymore.5.Hemustbeill,____heisabsentToday.6.Somepeoplebelievethat______oilisrunningout,thefateofthemotorindustryisuncertain.,because,as,As,Since,for,since,条件状语从句表示主句中的某一动作或状态是在什么情况或条件下发生的。条件状语从句中通常用一般现在时表示将来。,条件状语从句由从属连词引导if,unless除非,as/solongas只要,once一旦,incase假使,,e.g.a.We’llcomeovertoseeyouonSaturdayifwehavetime.b.Weshouldservethepeopleas/solongaswelive.,4.条件状语从句,,1.Wewillbeabletogetthereontime,____ourcardoesn’tbreakdownontheroad.assoonasB.asfarasC.aslongasD.aswellas2.Intimeofseriousaccidents,_____weknowsomebasicthingsaboutfirstaid,wecansavelives.whetherB.untilC.ifD.unless3.____youhavetriedit,youcan’timaginehowpleasantitis.A.UnlessB.BecauseC.AlthoughD.When,____youtouchanEnglishperson,youshouldsay“sorry”._____theyaredirty,certainseasarenotabletocleanthemselves.__________wedon’tloseheart,we’llfindawaytoovercomethedifficulty.Don’ttouchanything______yourteachertellsyouto.,If,Once,Aslongas,unless,在复合句中表示让步概念的状语从句被称为让步状语从句。1.常用引导词though,although,evenif,eventhough,2.nomatter疑问词what/who/where/when/which/how无论什么/无论谁/无论哪里/.......3.疑问词-everwhatever,whoever,wherever,whenever,however,whichever无论什么/无论谁/无论哪里/.......,5.让步状语从句,though,although,◆判断以下句子是否正确Althoughheisrich,butheisnothappy.Althoughheisrich,yetheisnothappy.Althoughwehavegrownup,ourparentsstilltreatusaschildren.,◆要点归纳though,although当“虽然”讲,都不能和but连用.但是他们都可以同yetstill连用.,everif,eventhough,evenif和eventhough表示“”,即使,We’llmakeatripeventhoughtheweatherisbad.,as引导让步状语从句,as引导的让步状语从句,必须将从句中的、、以及谓语中的提前至从句句首,作表语的单数可数名词前如有冠词,冠词需。,表语,状语,实意动词,省略,Thoughheworkshard,hemakeslittleprogress.,Hardas/thoughheworks,hemakeslittleprogress.,Thoughhewasachild,heknewwhatwastherightthingtodo.,Childas/thoughhewas,heknewwhatwastherightthingtodo.,Thoughyoumayobject,I’llgo.,Objectasyoumay,I’llgo.,whetheror,whetherornot,whetheror,whetherornot表示“不论是否”,“不管是还是”。其引导的从句旨在说明正反两方面的可能性都不会影响主句的意向或结果。,Whetheryoubelieveitornot,itistrue.,You’llhavetoattendthepartywhetheryouarefreeorbusy.,while也可以引导让步状语从句,意为“尽管”,语气比though/although弱。其引导的从句一般位于。,句首,例句我尽管喜欢它的颜色,但不喜欢它的形状。,WhileIlikeitscolor,Idon’tlikeitsshape.,nomatter疑问词疑问词-ever,Nomatterwhathappened,hewouldnotmind.Whateverhappened,hewouldnotmind.,替换nomatterwhatwhatevernomatterwhowhoevernomatterwhenwhenevernomatterwherewherevernomatterwhichwhichevernomatterhowhowever,判断正误Nomatterwhatyousayisofnousenow.Whateveryousayisofnousenow.,归纳nomatter疑问词不能引导主语从句和宾语从句,而“疑问词ever”则可以,,____Iacceptthatheisnotperfect,Idoactuallyliketheperson.A.WhileB.sinceC.BeforeD.Unless2.Theworkersaredeterminedtogothroughwiththeirrailwayproject,____theexpenseshaverisen.A.aslongasB.eventhoughC.nowthatD.asthough3.Ireallywantthematch,howevermuch______.A.doesitcostB.costsitC.willitcostD.itcosts,4.______wehavefinishedthecourse,weshallstartdoingmorerevisionwork.A.FornowB.NowthatC.BynowD.until5.______,theideaofhavingtoworkunderawomandefeatedhim.A.WantingthejobverymuchB.AlthoughwantingthejobbadlyC.ThoughhewantedthejobverymuchD.Hewantedthejobbadly,引导目的状语从句的连词,inorderthat,,用于正式文体中,所引从句可于主句前或后。,sothat,,a.较常用,一般用于主句后,有时可分开,so有时可省;从句中要有情态动词,否则,就成为下一种句型,b.无情态动词则引导结果状语从句。,forfearthat;incase;lest以免等。,6.目的状语从句,e.g.a.We’llsitnearerthefrontsothatwecanhearbetter.b.IshallwriteitdownlestIshouldforget.,注意当从句与主句的主语一致时,可用soastodo或inordertodo,e.g.Heranfastsothathemightarrivetherebeforeteno’clock.→,Heranfastsoastoarrivetherebeforeteno’clock.,结果状语从句常位于主句之后,由so,sothat,suchthat;sothat等引导。,a.SoquicklydidherunthatIcouldn’tcatchupwithhim.b.Thebusbrokedownsothatwehadtowalkhome.c.Sheissuchagoodteacherthateveryoneadmiresher.★d.Hegottothestationfinally,onlytofindthetrainhadleft.,7.结果状语从句,描述主句动作进行方式的状语被称为方式状语。通常用下列词语引导as,justas,asif,asthough,thewaythat,inthewaythat等。,a.WemustdoasthePartytellsus.b.Leavethethingsastheyare.c.Mostplantsneedsunlightjustastheyneedwater.d.Itsoundsasifitisraining.e.TheydiditinawaythatIhadneverseenbefore.他们以我从没见过的方式行事。f.Aswateristofish,soairistoman.我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水,8.方式状语从句,比较状语从句常由下列词语引导asas,notso/asas,morethan,lessthan,themoreadj./adv.,themoreadj./adv.,a.Heisnotso/ashealthyashisbrother.b.Theyjumpedupanddownashardastheycould.c.JohnislesscleverthanPeter.d.Thebusierheis,thehappierhefeels.e.ThejobisnotsodifficultasIthoughtitwouldbe.f.Sendforadoctorassoonasitispossible.,9.比较状语从句,Rosesneedspecialcare______theycanlivethroughwinter.A.becauseB.sothatC.evenifD.as2.Ifthingsareleft______theyare,theproblemswillneverbesettled,I’mafraid.A.howB.asC.whatD.where3.Carefulsurveyshavepointedoutthatasmanyas50percentofthepatientsdonottakedrugs_____directed.A.likeB.soC.whichD.as4.Idarenotgothere______myparentswillseeme.A.incaseofB.forfearofC.inorderthatD.forfearthat,★注意区分不同从句引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以where和as为例,能引导多种从句。Youaretofinditwhereyouleftit.(地点状语从句)Tellmetheaddresswherehelives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)Idon’tknowwherehecamefrom.(宾语从句)Wherehehasgoneisnotknownyet.(主语从句)Thisplaceiswheretheyoncehid.(表语从句),“as”用于不同的状语从句中1.Shesangassheworked.2.Smartasheis,hedoesn’tstudyhard.3.YoumusttrytodoasIdid.4.Shedoesn’tdoherworkascarefullyasI.5.Asshewaslateforclass,shehadtosaysorry.,,部分状语从句可用省略形式evenif,if,once,while,though,unless,when,asifetc.Theflowerhisfriendsgavehimwilldieunlessitiswateredeveryday..EvenifIaminvited,Iwon’tgothere.Onceyouarecaughtsleepinginclass,you’llbepunishedbyyourhead-teacher.Thoughhewassurprisedtoseeus,hegaveusawarmwelcome.Shewon’tspeaktoanyoneunlesssheisaskedto.Whenitiscomparedwiththeoldone,ournewhouseisreallylikeapalace.Theseyoungmanvolunteeredtogowherevertheyareneeded.,
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